Abstract Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) arises due to the presence of ambiguity in the text during the semantic analysis of natural languages. It is a major unsolved problem in the area of Natural ...Language Processing (NLP) and its applications. This paper explores and reviews WSD algorithms that have contributed to, or created state-of-art solutions in recent years. Moreover, this paper also aims to analyze the recent technological trends in the domain of WSD which can give us leverage to identify the possible future trajectory of the search for better WSD solutions.
The series features monographs and edited volumes on the topics of lexicography and meta-lexicography. Works from the broader domain of lexicology are also included if they strengthen the ...theoretical, methodological and empirical basis of lexicography and meta-lexicography. Thevolumes focus on aspects of lexicography such as micro- and macrostructure, typology, history of the discipline, and application-oriented lexicographical documentation.
The present paper advances an argument that recent developments in the field of lexicography enable deployment of two types of specialized subject-matter labels: endoprofiling (for lexemes that are ...characteristic of a field, that lexically profile it, whether restricted to that particular field or also part of the general vocabulary) and exodistinctive (for lexemes generally not found outside the field—and thus a subset of those marked by the endoprofiling label). Only exodistinctive labels have been widely used in traditional lexicographic labeling and discussed in the metalexicographic literature; yet the current needs for human-user-interface dictionaries and machine-readable databases for natural language processing require that endoprofiling labels be consistently added to metalexicographic discussions and the underlying structure of some monolingual dictionary databases. This paper argues for the need to recognize both label types in theory and for a consistent two-pronged labeling strategy in practice: overt for exodistinctive and, in dictionaries with such need, underlying for endoprofiling labels. Relying on theory and case studies, the paper further points to problem areas in current deployment of subject-matter labels.
The global application of the Crystallographic Information Framework (CIF) to the molecular structure domain has been successful over the past 20 years. It is used widely by molecular science ...journals and databases for submission, validation and deposition. This paper will give an overview of the CIF implementation, highlighting its particular successes and occasional failures. It will also recommend criteria for the application of an ontology-based data management system to any information domain. The paper will conclude with some details of the latest STAR data definition language and the importance of methods to the preservation of derivative data items. Keywords: crystallography, crystallographic information file, data exchange standard, machine readable dictionaries, ontologies
Lexical markup framework (LMF) is the ISO standard for representing machine-readable dictionaries (MRD) and natural language-processing lexicons. The formal specification has been officially ...published in 2008 under the reference ISO-24613:2008 after a 5-year study and series of meetings gathering 60 lexicon managers and linguists coming from various cultures and languages. The ISO document contains a formal specification under the form of a Unified Modeling Language accompanied with a selection of examples of word description in Asian, European, Semitic and Turkish languages. Afterward, the model has been applied to a couple of African languages. In this current text, after a brief introduction of LMF, we present some difficult challenges which are required to represent a selection of Asian languages, especially in the context of dictionaries in general and MRD in particular.
In der Reihe Lexicographica. Series Maior erscheinen schwerpunktmäßig Monographien und Sammelbände zur Lexikographie und Metalexikographie. Darüber hinaus werden Arbeiten aus dem weiteren Bereich der ...Lexikologie aufgenommen, sofern sie Ansätze bieten, die einen Beitrag zum Ausbau der theoretischen, methodischen und empirischen Grundlagen von Lexikographie und Metalexikographie leisten. In den seit 1984 erschienenen knapp 150 Bänden spiegeln sich anschaulich die Schwerpunkte und Entwicklungstendenzen der einschlägigen Forschung. Das Spektrum der behandelten Themen reicht von Problemen der Mikro- und Makrostruktur über typologische und wissenschaftsgeschichtliche Aspekte bis hin zur anwendungsorientierten lexikographischen Dokumentation.
The Crystallographic Information File (CIF), owned by the International Union of Crystallography, is a file structure based on tag-value ASCII pairs with tags defined in machine-readable ...dictionaries. The crystallographic community publishes and archives large quantities of numeric information generated by crystal structure determinations, and CIF's acceptance was assured by its adoption as the submission format for Acta Crystallographica and by the obvious needs of the community. CIF's strength lies in its dictionaries, which define most of the concepts of crystallography; its weakness is the difficulty of writing software that exploits its full potential.
The aim of this paper is to evaluate and compare electronic resources for the Japanese language in terms of their usability for Japanese language learners. The paper focuses on a computer assisted ...language learning (CALL) system developed to support learners in reading Japanese language texts, the JapaneseLanguage Reading Tutorial System "Reading Tutor", and the e-dictionaryserver "WWWDJDIC" with its extended functions. Each system was introduced and used in the classroom for various teacher-planned reading and comprehension tasks. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages of the systems that were identified during classroom usage by university studentsenrolled on a Japanese language course, and discusses the results of asurvey conducted in order to explore student opinion, preferences and usage habits regarding the resources. In addition, the paper also notes and briefly addresses some other e-dictionaries, e-resources and tools covered in the survey, such as the pop-up support dictionary tools Rikai-chan, "Perapera-kun", and "Popjisyo", the Japanese Reading System for Multi-Lingual Environments "Asunaro", and the Writing Support System "Natsume", as well as the corpus query system Sketch Engine with Word Sketches, which automatically extracts collocational information for the Japanese language.
This paper discusses how to refine a given initial legal ontology using an existing MRD (Machine-Readable Dictionary). There are two hard issues in the refinement process. One is to find out those ...MRD concepts most related to given legal concepts. The other is to correct bugs in a given legal ontology, using the concepts extracted from an MRD. In order to resolve the issues, we present a method to find out the best MRD correspondences to given legal concepts, using two match algorithms. Moreover, another method called a static analysis is given to refine a given legal ontology, based on the comparison between the initial legal ontology and the best MRD correspondences to given legal concepts. We have implemented a software environment to help a user refine a given legal ontology based on these methods. The empirical results have shown that the environment works well in the field of Contracts for the International Sale of Goods.