Early vertebrate origin and diversification of small transmembrane regulators of cellular ion transportPirkmajer, Sergej ...Small transmembrane proteins are important for regulation of cellular ion transport. The most prominent among these proteins are members of the FXYD family (FXYD1-12), which regulate Na+ -K+ -ATPase, ... and phospholamban, sarcolipin, myoregulin, and DWORF, which regulate the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA). FXYDs and regulators of SERCA are present in fishes, as well as terrestrial vertebrates; however, their evolutionary origins and phylogenetic relationships are obscure, thus hampering comparative physiological studies. Here we discovered that sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), a representative of extant jawless vertebrates (Cyclostomata), expresses an FXYD homologue, which strongly suggests that FXYDs predate the emergence of fishes and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Using a combination of sequence-based phylogenetic analysis and conservation of local chromosome context, we determined that FXYDs markedly diversified in the lineages leading to cartilaginous fishes (Chondricthyes) and bony vertebrates (Euteleostomi). Diversification of SERCA regulators was much less extensive, indicating they operate under different evolutionary constraints. Finally, we found that FXYDs in extant vertebrates can be classified into 13 gene subfamilies, which do not always correspond to the established FXYD classification. We therefore propose a revised classification that is based on evolutionary history of FXYDs and that is consistent across vertebrate species. Collectively, our findings provide an improved framework for investigating the function of ion transport in health and disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Source: The journal of physiology. - ISSN 0022-3751 (Vol. 595, no. 14, Jul. 2017, str. 4611-4630)Type of material - article, component part ; adult, seriousPublish date - 2017Language - englishCOBISS.SI-ID - 33240537
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