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  • Androgeni, benigna hiperplazija prostate in rak prostate = Androgens, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer
    Lanišnik-Rižner, Tea
    Benign prostatic hyperplasia is the most common benign neoplasia in men over 60 years of age, while prostate cancer affects 15 to 30% of men between 50 and70 years of age. The clinical data suggest ... that androgens have an importantrole in the development of these diseases: patients with genetic defects in androgen biosynthesis and action never develop benign hyperplasia and prostate cancer. The pathogenesis of benign hyperplasia and prostate cancer involves epigenetic and genetic changes, and includes several gene polymorphisms that are involved in the biosynthesis and action of androgens. In the prostate, the potent andro gen 5a-dihydrotestosterone is formed both from testosterone and from inactive androgen precursors of adrenal origin. It then acts through the androgen receptor, stimulating the proliferation of the prostate epithelium and stroma and potentially leading to benign hyperplasia, while enhanced proliferation can increase DNA replication and the probability of genetic errors that result in prostate cancer. Androgen independent prostate cancer develops by several mechanisms: hypersensitivity or promiscuosity of androgen receptors, ligand independent activation, androgen independent pathways and selection of neuroendocrine cells. Androgen dependentprostate diseases can also be treated with agents that block androgenformation and action. Patients with hormone independent forms of prostate cancer are currently treated with chemotherapeutics, while those therapeutics which inhibit the signalling pathways involved in the developmentof hormone independent disease are in the final phases of clinical trials. A better understanding of the molecular basis of these two diseases will help identify molecular markers and novel drug targets in the future, providing better diagnostics and a real possibility of individual patient oriented treatment.
    Vrsta gradiva - članek, sestavni del
    Leto - 2008
    Jezik - slovenski
    COBISS.SI-ID - 24581849