Comparing spontaneous and pellet-triggered ELMs via non-linear extended MHD simulationsCathey, A. ...Injecting frozen deuterium pellets into an ELMy H-mode plasma is a well established scheme for triggering edge localized modes (ELMs) before they naturally occur. This paper presents non-linear ... simulations of spontaneous type-I ELMs and pellet-triggered ELMs in ASDEX Upgrade performed with the extended MHD code JOREK. A thorough comparison of the non-linear dynamics of these events is provided. In particular, pellet-triggered ELMs are simulated by injecting deuterium pellets into different time points during the pedestal build-up described in A Cathey et al (2020 Nuclear Fusion 60 124007). Realistic ExB and diamagnetic background plasma flows as well as the time dependent bootstrap current evolution are included during the build-up to accurately capture the balance between stabilising and destabilising terms for the edge instabilities. Dependencies on the pellet size and injection times are studied. The spatio-temporal structures of the modes and the resulting divertor heat fluxes are compared in detail between spontaneous and triggered ELMs. We observe that the premature excitation of ELMs by means of pellet injection is caused by a helical perturbation described by a toroidal mode number of n = 1. In accordance with experimental observations, the pellet-triggered ELMs show reduced thermal energy losses and a narrower divertor wetted area with respect to spontaneous ELMs. The peak divertor energy fluence is seen to decrease when ELMs are triggered by pellets injected earlier during the pedestal build-up.Vir: Plasma physics and controlled fusion. - ISSN 0741-3335 (Vol. 63, no. 7, 2021, str. 1-18)Vrsta gradiva - članek, sestavni delLeto - 2021Jezik - angleškiCOBISS.SI-ID - 92915715
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