Uniquely bridging theory and practice, this text introduces and overviews the various domains associated with the term critical pedagogy in the field of TESOL/ELT. Critical pedagogy addresses ...concepts, values, curriculum, instructional and associated practices involved in language teaching for social justice. Bringing critical pedagogy to classroom practitioners in a practical and comprehensible way, the text is designed to help teachers get started on critically grounded work in their own teaching. Features• Textbook extracts offer direct and quick illustration of what this perspective might look like in practice• Coverage of feminist and anti-racist pedagogies; sexual identity, oppression and pedagogy; peace and environmental education; and critical English as a foreign language—and their implications for second-language teaching • Historical background• Theoretical background on language and learning• Consideration of applicability of critical/radical educational concepts and traditions to non-Western cultural contexts • A focus on issues of compromise and resistance
This original, timely, and informative text is ideal for any course on methods and approaches in TESOL.
This book examines the ethical controversies that have surrounded the design and conduct of international medical research sponsored by industrialized countries or industry, and carried out in ...developing countries. The chief concern is that research subjects in developing countries may be exploited because sponsors of research employ double standards. One debate focuses on whether the standard of care provided to subjects of medical research in developing countries should be the same as what research subjects receive in North America and Europe. Other concerns are whether the process of obtaining informed consent in developing countries is adequate, and whether prior ethical review of research meets standards that are well established in the industrialized world. Recent international developments show that essential medications can be made affordable and accessible to developing countries, and that double standards need not prevail.
Estudios previos demuestran que los segmentos L2 son más fáciles de adquirir que los suprasegmentos. En un contexto EFL, la influencia de la L1 parece minimizarse a medida que los aprendices ganan ...dominio L2. Nuestro estudio explora el efecto de la transferencia del español como L1 y del dominio del inglés como L2 en la producción de vocales y acento nuclear, por medio de la comparación acústica de las emisiones de aprendices de niveles elemental y avanzado de inglés en Chile. Los resultados indican mejoría a mayor dominio L2, aunque todavía lejos del nivel nativo. En cuanto a las vocales, persisten ciertos problemas con la posición de la lengua a pesar del dominio, con dependencia excesiva en la intensidad para producir vocales tensas. En cuanto al acento nuclear, la correcta ubicación del núcleo mejora a mayor dominio y las producciones empiezan a reflejar los correlatos acústicos de una variedad del inglés, aún con una dependencia excesiva en la duración para marcar el núcleo. Se requiere más investigación, como en ritmo y en fluidez, para tener una comprensión más holística de los efectos de la transferencia de L1 y el dominio de L2 en inglés L2. Palabras clave: EFL, español chileno, transferencia L1, dominio L2, parámetros acústicos. Previous studies show that L2 segments are easier to acquire than suprasegments. In an EFL context, the L1 influence seems to be minimized as learners gain L2 experience. Our study explores the effect of L1 transfer from Spanish and L2 experience in English on the production of vowels and nuclear accent, by comparing acoustically the productions of elementary and advanced learners of EFL in Chile. Results indicate improvement with higher L2 experience, although still far from native speakers. Concerning vowels, certain problems with tongue advancement and height persist at advanced levels, with overreliance on intensity to produce tense vowels. Regarding nuclear accents, correct nucleus placement improves with experience, and productions start to reflect the acoustic correlates of one English variety, still with a tendency to over rely on duration to mark the nucleus. Further research is warranted, such as on rhythm and fluency, to have a more holistic understanding of the effects of L1 transfer and L2 experience on L2 English. Keywords: EFL, Chilean Spanish, L1 transfer, L2 experience, acoustic parameters.
Bioethanol Technologies explores the conceptual and methodological approaches for understanding bioethanol technologies and future perspectives. The book comprehensively covers the global scenario of ...ethanol production from both food and non-food crops and other sources. This book is a useful resource for those involved with biofuels in general and bioethanol in particular, including energy engineers, researchers, consultants, analysts, policy makers, and professionals in the industry supply chain. This book: '¢ Reviews the most significant research findings in both ethanol production and utilization; '¢ Presents technological interventions in ethanol production, from plant biomass to food crops; '¢ Offers a foresight analysis on the perspectives of bioethanol as a global commodity; '¢ Presents a complete overview of the main challenges that bioenergy will have to overcome in order to play a key role in future energy systems; '¢ Presents necessary Occupational Health and Safety (OH&S) assessments.